Te Rū Rangahau: The Māori Research Laboratory

Sonja Macfarlane

E ngā waka, e ngā mana, e ngā karangatanga maha, tenā rā tātou.

Traditional attitudes to knowledge have a bearing on research practices. According to Mead (2003) research in a Māori sense seeks to expand knowledge outward (te whānuitanga), in depth (te hohonutanga) and toward light (te māramatanga). Similarly, many contemporary approaches to research strive to describe, explain and interpret things in contrasting and complementary ways.

Māori research has a growing presence in the College of Education, Health and Human Development. Kaupapa Māori research is often perceived as a phenomenon that challenges the conventions of research while seeking to identify and uphold Māori views, solutions and ways of knowing. It is about empowering Māori people, voice, processes and knowledge. It is about inclusion too; working with local, national and international colleagues across the disciplines of education on projects that move Māori from the margins and toward the centre.

Te Rū Rangahau: The Māori Research Laboratory has incorporated into its title two key words. One of these, Rū (in this instance taken to mean vibrant) is a tribute to the mythical Rūaumoko (god of earthquakes and seasons) and the other, Rangahau (research), is a marker to remind us of an important dimension of our core work. This title was chosen as a way of recognising the resiliency and camaraderie that has been evident at the University of Canterbury during the recent challenging times. Te Rū Rangahau will be a place of vibrant scholarship where postgraduates and staff can discuss plans, analyse activities, write proposals, report on and complete projects, and, importantly, express whanaungatanga.

Aims/objectives of Te Rū Rangahau:

Support and promote the Strategy for Māori Development of the University of Canterbury, in particular, the  following goals:

  • to support the advancement of Indigenous postgraduates in the College
  • to advance research that is responsive to Māori and Indigenous needs and aspirations

Other goals:

  • Encourage and facilitate meaningful engagement with iwi Māori at the conceptual stage of research planning, with ongoing support and advice as needed.
  • Provide timely Māori consultation for research proposals for those seeking external funding.
  • Assist the College of Education, Health and Human Development to be aware of and engage with the Māori research funding environment.
  • Facilitate overseas scholars whose research and teaching  interests and aspirations are in tandem with Māori and Indigenous development, and the development of minoritised communities
  • Ensure that that all research is conducted in a manner that is consistent with the Treaty of Waitangi principles, with appropriate cultural oversight and advice for both researchers and research participants.
  • Help to raise the profile of Māori research by promoting culturally responsive research processes and practices through symposia, and university-wide communications about research opportunities and successes


    Associate Professor Sonja Macfarlane (Ngāti Waewae, Ngāi Tahu) was awarded the Te Tohu Pae Tawhiti Award at the annual New Zealand Association for Research in Education conference in recognition of her outstanding contributions to the field of Māori education. The story is featured on Te Karere and in The Press and can be accessed via the links: https://youtu.be/XarmJ5RMBuE http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/education/99021742/cantabrian-picks-up-national-mori-education-award
    At this year’s annual College of Education, Health and Human Development awards ceremony, Te Rū Rangahau received the award for Māori Research Team of the Year for excellence in research. The award came with a cash prize, and was met with surprise and humility by Te Rū members.
    UC’s Kaiarahi Pasifika, Tufulasi Taleni (Ngāti Hāmoa), was the first Pasifika recipient of the Rae Munro Award, which recognised excellence in his Master’s thesis. Tufulasi’s thesis is titled E saili i tautai se agava’a: A true leader masters the art of navigation’: The impact of effective leadership in raising engagement and achievement of Pasifika learners in New Zealand schools’ and focused on the influence that effective educational leadership has on improving outcomes for Pasifika learners http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/news/2017/uc-specialist-the-first-pasifika-researcher-to-win-education-award.html
    The annual Māori Research Colloquium was held on Friday 3 November and was hosted by the College of Education, Health and Human Development, together with the Office of the AVC Māori and Te Rū Rangahau. The event was well-attended by educators, practitioners, Māori and Indigenous community leaders, and senior University staff. Highlights of the day include two keynote addresses – the first from illustrious Māori educator and leader Sir Toby Curtis (Ngāti Rongomai) who was welcomed at the mihi whakatau by another knight and preeminent Māori leader, Sir Tipene O’Regan (Ngāi Tahu). The second keynote was delivered by Dr Lana Leslie, a Kamilaroi woman from Western Sydney University. https://blogs.canterbury.ac.nz/intercom/2017/11/09/maori-research-uc-terrific-work/  
    Te Rū Rangahau scholars travelled to the University of Sydney to present at a two-day Indigenous research forum hosted by the University of Sydney’s School of Education and Social Work's Indigenous Research Collaboration. Te Rū’s delegation reciprocated a visit from academics from the University of Sydney, who visited Te Rū in October 2016 for a two day symposium hosted by Te Rū Rangahau.


    Melissa Derby, a doctoral candidate in Te Rū Rangahau was awarded the Brownlie scholarship, which is UC’s most prestigious doctoral scholarship given to the highest ranked doctoral candidate across the University. 
    The Office of the AVC Māori, together with Te Rū Rangahau and Aotahi School of Māori and Indigenous Studies, hosted Professor Emeritus Russell Bishop as the keynote speaker at this year’s Māori Research Colloquium. Emeritus Professor Bishop is one of Aotearoa New Zealand’s preeminent scholars, and his address to a packed auditorium was a highlight of the 2016 Colloquium. 
    Te Rū Rangahau Director Professor Angus Macfarlane and his team translated Russian poet Alexander Pushkin’s masterpiece, A Wondrous Moment I Remember, into te reo Māori as part of a new publication. Te Hurinui Clarke from Te Rū Rangahau used his expertise on the challenging task. The poem was translated into 210 languages, including te reo Māori. 


    A new book co-edited by Te Rū Rangahau Director Professor Angus Macfarlane, Te Rū Rangahau Associate Professor Sonja Macfarlane, and Dr Melinda Webber from the University of Auckland was launched at Waipapa marae. Sociocultural Realities: Exploring New Horizons scrutinises ethnic and cultural considerations in the hope of helping beginning and experienced teachers, special education advisers, psychologists, university lecturers, education professionals (from early childhood through to tertiary), and families. 

Clarke, T.H. (2014). Hōaka Pounamu: Contributing to the Successful Revitalisation of te reo Māori (The Māori language) in Te Waipounamu (The South Island) of Aotearoa (New Zealand). Oʻahu, HI, USA: World Indigenous Peoples Conference on Education (WiPCE 2014), 22 May 2014. (Oral Presentations)

Clarke, T.H. (2014). Postgraduate Diploma in Education endorsed in Hōaka Pounamu: Te Reo Māori Bilingual and Immersion Teaching. Hilo, HI, USA: 21st Stabilising Indigenous Languages Symposium 2014, 15-19 Jan 2014. (Oral Presentations)

Derby, M. (2016). Te Whanaketanga o Ngāi Tamarāwaho: The Evolution of Hapū Identity (Master of Arts thesis). AUT University, New Zealand.

Derby, M. (2016). The Impact of Socio-Historical Context on Identity: An Analysis of Ngāi Tamarāwaho Identity in the Colonisation Era. Te Kaharoa, 9(1), 25-53.

Gillon, G. (2016). Enhancing early literacy development in children with unintelligible speech. Online: ASHA Online Conference - Improving Intelligibility in Children with Speech Sound Disorders, 6-18 Apr 2016.

Gillon, G.T. (2015). Better start to literacy for young children with speech and language impairment. Thessaloniki, Greece: IALP-Child Language Committee Composium, 26-27 Jun 2015.

Gillon, G., & Macfarlane, A. H. (2017). A culturally responsive framework for enhancing   phonological awareness development in children with speech and language impairment. Speech, Language and Hearing, 1-11. doi: 10.1080/2050571X.2016.1265738

Gillon, G. and Macfarlane, A. (2015). Eke Panui, Ake Tamaiti: Braiding health and education services to ensure early literacy success and healthy wellbeing for vulnerable children. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Speech-language Therapists' Association Professional Development Symposium 2015, 11-12 Jun 2015.

Gillon, G.T. and McNeill, B.C. (2015). Phonological Awareness Intervention: Building foundations for successful early literacy development for preschool children with speech-language impairment. In R.J. McCauley, M.E. Fey and R. Gillam (Ed.), Treatment of Language Disorders in Children (2nd ed.): 279-307. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Macfarlane A., Macfarlane, S., Cavanagh, T., Nieto, M., Duckworth, F., & Fickel, L. (2017). Psychosocial analyses and actions for promoting restorative schools: Indigenous determinants connecting three international sites. In McKinley, E., & Smith, L. (Eds.), Handbook of Indigenous Education, (pp. 1-25). Sydney, NSW: Springer. Retrieved online from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1839-8_36-1

Macfarlane, A. (2015). Nga tapuwae o mua, mo muri. Footprints of the past to motivate today's diverse learners. Waikato Journal of Education 20(2): 27-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.15663/wje.v20i2.203.

Macfarlane, A. (2015). Restlessness, resoluteness and reason: Looking back at 50 years of Māori education. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies 50(2): 177-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40841-015-0023-y.

Macfarlane, A. and Macfarlane, S. (2015). Education, psychology and culture: Towards synergetic practices. Knowledge Cultures Journal 3(2): 66-81.

Macfarlane, A.,Macfarlane, S., Graham, J., & Clarke, T. (2017). Social and emotional learning and Indigenous ideologies in Aotearoa New Zealand: A biaxial blend.In E. Frydenberg, A. Martin & R Collie (Eds.), Social and emotional learning in Australia and the Asia Pacific, (pp. 273-289). Sydney, NSW: Springer.

Macfarlane, S. (2014). A braided rivers approach to enhancing wellbeing: He Ritenga Whaimohio. Rotorua, New Zealand: Midland Maori Mental Health and Addictions Network Summit Conference: Hei Wero - Hei Taniwha: Blending Clinical and Cultural, 10-11 Jun 2014. (Conference Contribution - Other - Oral presentations)

Macfarlane, S. and Macfarlane, A. (2015). Inclusion for all - or just some? Drawing from evidence that counts for Māori: Whaia ki te ara tika. In M. Berryman, S. SooHoo, A. Nevin and T. Ford (Ed.), Culture and Relational Inclusion: Contexts for Becoming and Belonging: 69-87. New York: Peter Lang.

Macfarlane, S., Clarke, T. and Macfarlane, A. (2016). Language, literacy, identity and culture: Challenges and responses for Indigenous learners. In L. Peer and G. Reid (Ed.), Multilingualism, Literacy and Dyslexia: Breaking down barriers for Educators (2nd ed.): pp. Oxford: Routledge.

Macfarlane, S. and Macfarlane, A. (2015) Cultural awareness for educators. Christchurch, New Zealand: Christchurch West Cluster, 28 Apr 2015. (Oral Presentations)

Macfarlane, S., Macfarlane, A. and Gillon, G. (2015). Sharing the food baskets of knowledge: Creating space for a blending of streams. In A. Macfarlane, S. Macfarlane and M. Webber (Ed.). Sociocultural realities: Exploring new horizons: 52-67. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.

Manning, R.F. (2014) Treaty Education for teachers and students in New Zealand schools and the New Zealand Curriculum: Some critical reflections for the consideration of the Oregon Indian Education Association in their development of a Bill to amend the Oregon State curriculum to include Treaty & Indian Sovereignty Education. Warm Springs Reservation, OR, USA: Oregon Indian Education Association Summit, 11-13 Sep 2014. (Conference Contribution - Other - Oral presentations).

Fickel, L., Nieto, M., Macfarlane, S., & Macfarlane, A. (2017). Harmonizing secondary school contexts: Learning from Aotearoa New Zealand and Peru. Knowledge Cultures 5(6), 45-61. ISSN 2327-5731, eISSN 2375-6527 doi:10.22381/KC5620174

Britt, E., Macfarlane, A., Macfarlane, S., Naswall, K., & Henderson, J. (2017). Growing a culturally-responsive tertiary programme in psychology: Stepping up. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education (AJIE), 1-13, http://doi.org/10.1017/jie.2017.35

Pilgrim, M., Hornby, G., Everatt J., & Macfarlane, A. (2017). Evaluation of an innovative programme for training teachers of children with learning and behavioural difficulties in New Zealand. Educational Review, 1-12.

Title: A Better Start: E Tipu e Rea

Abstract: A project under the auspices of the nation-wide National Science Challenges (Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, 2014). Significant health, education and social disparities persist in New Zealand and, as in other societies, indigenous and minority populations are the most affected. In addressing these disparities and ensuring equitable outcomes for all New Zealanders an important first step is to provide “a better start” to life. “E Tipu e rea”, which translates as “Grow ye, o seed, and fulfil your potential”, was penned by Sir Apirana Ngata, a revered Māori leader (Member of Parliament 1905-1943). The importance of early childhood, in particular, is reinforced by the recent analysis of adult health outcomes from early intervention [1]. The challenge is to use science to improve the potential of young New Zealanders to have a healthy and successful life with a focus on altering trajectories early in life and at adolescence, to bring together already developed expertise in New Zealand, and to explore, understand and use the new digital world we live in to create better outcomes. The framework set for the Challenge requires developing a science plan around three broad themes: 1. Maternal health, pregnancy and early childhood; 2. Successful transition into adulthood; and 3. Education: Living in a Digital world. 

Subject area and Discipline: Human development; Disciplines of health science and education
Funding: Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
Māori relevance: High 
Personnel: Gail Gillon, Angus Macfarlane, Sonja Macfarlane, Melissa Derby, and colleagues
Status: 2014 – 2019

Te Pā o Rākaihautū Research Group

Te Pā o Rākaihautū is a designated character school in Christchurch, which opened in 2015 and caters for students from Year 1 to Year 13. The school offers a place-based curriculum for the 21st century that is founded on tikanga and te reo Māori, and Māori values, culture, and history. By bringing together Māori and English mediums in a pā setting, it offers a unique learning environment that aims to deliver significantly improved outcomes for Māori students. Te Pā o Rākaihautū is the first of its kind in Christchurch. A multi-disciplinary team of researchers from Te Rū Rangahau, UC’s College of Science, ESR (the Institute of Environmental Science and Research), and SCION (Crown research institute) are collaborating on projects related to priority research areas identified by Te Pā o Rākaihautū. The numerous projects contribute to monitoring, reporting and evaluating the activities at Te Pā o Rākaihautū
Subject area and Discipline: education, environmental sustainability, Māori
Funding: NA
Māori relevance: high 
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane, Sonja Macfarlane, Te Hurinui Clarke, Richard Manning, Melissa Derby
Status: Group established 2017

Te Rū Rangahau and Superu Relationship

Superu operate as the Social Policy Evaluation and Research Unit. Formerly known as the Families Commission, their purpose is to increase the use of evidence by people across the social sector so that they can make better decisions that improve the lives of New Zealanders, New Zealand’s communities, families and whānau. In 2015, Superu and Te Rū Rangahau formed a relationship with the intention of developing the He Awa Whiria - Braided Rivers approach to research. Leaders from each organisation have been involved in national and international conference presentations, as well as wānanga and workshops in Wellington and Christchurch. Additionally, He Awa Whiria - Braided Rivers has been formally adopted by Superu as part of their ongoing work programme to measure and monitor wellbeing for families and whānau. Two separate frameworks have been developed to monitor and report on family and whānau wellbeing.  The frameworks stem from and are informed by different knowledge codes (Western science & Te Ao Māori).  The work is challenging, innovative, complex, and exciting.
Funding: NA
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane, Sonja Macfarlane, Vyletta Arago-Kemp, Bev Hong, Kahukore Baker
Status: 2014 – 2017

Title: Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities

Abstract: A project under the auspices of the nation-wide National Science Challenges (Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, 2014). There are significant difficulties in New Zealand’s built environment regarding housing supply, the quality of housing, and the vulnerabilities and underperformance of our urban environments.  Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities aims to help transform dwellings and places where people live into homes and communities that are hospitable, productive, and protective. The Challenge’s vision is Ka ora kāinga rua: Built environments that build communities”.  The Challenge mission is Manaaki Tangata.  Researchers, engaged with industry and community, through innovative research with commitment to co-creation of new knowledge, will transform the systems and organisations that shape the creation and regeneration of our homes, neighbourhoods, towns, and cities. Homes, neighbourhoods, towns and cities throughout New Zealand will enable people to enrich their lives and reach their social, cultural and economic potential throughout their life stages. 
Subject area and Discipline: Human development; Disciplines of health science and geography
Funding: Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
Māori relevance: High 
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane and colleagues
Status: 2014 – 2019

Title: Huakina Mai: Opening doorways for Māori learners

Abstract: A project under the auspices of the nation-wide Positive Behaviour for Learning (PB4L) initiative, Ministry of Education (2012-2016). This project is in response to the developmental a nationwide initiative of a whole-school strengths-based behavioural intervention by Māori for Māori with the potential to transform educational success and opportunities.  The initial stage of the project involved  a round of data collection, conducted via a series of focus groups held with Māori experts, practitioners, families and students, to support a theoretical development of a kaupapa Māori approach to school-wide positive behaviour.  The evidence indicated that a systems framework needs to come from a Māori worldview, be inclusive of community and ensure Māori children are able to learn as Māori – enjoying positive cultural and identity development through schooling.
Subject area and Discipline: Behaviour and motivation; Discipline of psychology 
Funding: Ministry of Education
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Macfarlane, S., Macfarlane, A., Savage, C., Fickel, L. & Te Hemi, H., Duckworth, F.
Status: 2012 – 2015

Title: Challenges and continuities: Unintended impacts of Te Reo Māori language revitalisation efforts

Abstract: We are now 30+ years on from when our children first had the opportunity to attend Kōhanga. They are a part of a fortunate generation, like those who will follow them. And so too are those that are following. But what of those older Māori, their parents and grandparents, some of who do speak te reo but many who do not? What challenges to tikanga, age related roles and relationships do these demographics present? Challenges and Continuities: Unintended impacts of Te Reo Māori language revitalisation efforts will answer the following research questions:

  • What are the experiences and strategies employed by pakeke and rangatahi to maintain mana when contexts require te reo proficiency?
  • What are the implications of shifts in age and role related customary practices on pakeke and rangatahi relationships and broader whānau and hapū processes?
  • What are mutually supportive practices that enrich the mana and wisdom of pakeke, and the learning and development experiences of rangatahi, towards te reo and tikanga enhancement?

Subject area and Discipline: te reo Māori, tikanga Māori, language revitalisation
Funding: Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Waikaremoana Waitoki and team from the University of Waikato, Angus Macfarlane (Te Wai Pounamu delegate), Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga Principal Investigators
Status: Project commenced 2016

Pushkin Poem

Abstract: An influential poem penned by revered Russian poet Alexander Pushkin was translated into te reo Māori with the support of te reo Māori experts and advocates of Te Rū Rangahau. The love poem, A Wondrous Moment I Remember, dedicated to Pushkin’s wife, has been translated into 210 languages, including Māori, in a unique publication. The Māori translation was made possible after Christchurch-based Russian Cultural Centre Trust convenor, Anna Filippochkina, approached Te Rū Rangahau director Professor Angus Macfarlane, seeking a professional partnership. Te Hurinui Clarke, a researcher in Te Rū Rangahau, translated the work, and using some poetic licence, managed to retain the artistry of te reo Māori, yet still convey the meaning of the poem. Clarke employed a Māori-Shakespearian style of language, using metaphor and personification. Clarke’s translation was passed to Te Arawa tribal authority, the late Mauriora Kingi, to check for accuracy and authenticity. The project makes a valuable and unique contribution to the revitalisation of te reo Māori. 
Subject area and Discipline: te reo Māori, language revitalisation
Funding: NA
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Te Hurinui Clarke, Angus Macfarlane, Russian Cultural Centre Trust
Status: Published 2016

Sociocultural Realities: Exploring New Horizons

Abstract: ‘Sociocultural Realities: Exploring New Horizons’ examines approaches that grow out of the past and function in the present -  in the education sector, from early childhood to tertiary. With few publications covering such a range, there is a common struggle to gain a better understanding of the impact of social and cultural discourses on learning and teaching; this book aims to encourage the discussion and application of the theory and practice by researchers, policy-makers and teacher educators in Aotearoa New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and elsewhere. The evolution of sociocultural theory is illustrated with clarity, and its links to cultural diversity across these geographically distinct settings are shared. By way of a range of personal experiences, and some innovative research that showcases sociocultural theory in practice, the book offers practical examples for educators to employ in today’s diverse learning contexts. Three key messages recur: the importance of people working in partnership, the worthiness of protecting diversity and uniqueness, and the significance of participation as an enabler of success. ‘Sociocultural Realities: Exploring New Horizons’ is a reference for teachers, special education advisors, psychologists, university lecturers and paraprofessionals.
Subject area and Discipline: sociocultural theory, culturally-inclusive pedagogy, Indigenous education 
Funding: Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga Expanding Excellence Initiative
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane, Sonja Macfarlane, Melinda Webber
Status: Published 2015

Restlessness, Resoluteness and Reason: Looking Back at 50 Years of Māori Education

Abstract: The New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies celebrated 50 years of publication in 2015, and to commemorate this milestone, the Journal commissioned a paper from Professor Angus Macfarlane that recounts some of the highlights experienced by Māori over five decades.  ‘Restlessness, Resoluteness and Reason: Looking Back at 50 Years of Māori Education’ explores the last 50 years of education provision for Māori, starting with historical touchstones that have influenced the recent past, a critique of the recent past itself, and observations of the present cultural drivers - those that harbour promises of a modern story that is authentically inclusive, and responsive to local and global obligations. The growing recognition of Māori education phenomena and ‘ways of knowing’ can be seen both as a response to the erosion and loss of traditional knowledge philosophies through the processes of colonialism and internationalism, and as a means of reclaiming and revaluing Māori language, identity and culture. Improving the educational success of Māori learners and their whānau contributes to ensuring that the goals identified as being critical for Māori advancement, are accomplished. 
Subject area and Discipline: Māori education, New Zealand history, culturally-responsive pedagogy
Funding: NA 
Acknowledgement: New Zealand Journal of Education Studies
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane
Status: Published 2015

Title: Measuring the effectiveness of ‘whole of system’ responses to preventing family violence

Abstract: The Families Commission/SuPERU wishes to critically review and assess the methods to measure the effectiveness of ‘whole of system’ responses to preventing family violence.  This work will also: Consider the appropriate mix and spread (and dose) of interventions across the system; Identify and assess effectiveness measures for interventions across a level/field/sector of the ‘system’; Consider how existing datasets held within government and NGOs can be used to measure effectiveness and identify any barriers or limitations that may exist. This work will support any future cross sector integrated approaches to address complex social issues in general and family violence in particular.  The review will therefore include an assessment of the data requirements (and existing barriers and/or limitations of the current datasets) to ensure this methodology is viable. The review will also look at innovative ways to measure effectiveness without evaluating each individual programme that is delivered. The Government is currently developing a comprehensive, long-term, and whole of government approach to further reduce family violence – Achieving Intergenerational Change (AIC). This review will support this work by providing an understanding of how to measure the effectiveness of the whole system of responses, across multiple levels of interventions.
Subject area and Discipline: Social psychology
Funding: Families Commission/SuPERU
Māori relevance: High 
Personnel: Sue Carswell, Jeff Foote, Angus Macfarlane, 
Status: 2015

Title: Evaluation of the Family Group Conference

Abstract: Child, Youth and Family have partnered with Te Awatea Violence Research Centre (VRC) at the University of Canterbury to independently evaluate Family Group Conference (FGC) practices and outcomes.  The evaluation focused on care and protection FGCs as relatively recent evaluations have been conducted in the youth justice area.  There have been a number of small studies of care and protection FGCs in New Zealand however they have never been evaluated in this country to see how effective they are for children and young people.  New Zealand and international research showed a high level of support for FGCs, from both families and professionals, however there is a lack of information about their long-term effectiveness.  The findings in this study were conducted at Child, Youth and Family sites in early 2013.  We sought the views of a small sample of children, young people and their whānau/caregivers about their experiences of FGCs in order to provide a foundation for the next phases of evaluation which examined the long-term outcomes from a much larger sample of children and young people.   
This approach reflects a number of priority areas and initiatives from the Children’s Action Plan and Mā mātou mā tātou.  For example the evaluation focused on quality of practice; measuring outcomes for children and young people; seeking the views of children and young people and being child focused; working together with Māori; and examining connections with communities and other agencies who work with vulnerable children.  Alongside the independent evaluation of care and protection FGCs, the project outcomes assisted Child, Youth and Family with the development of their internal evaluation capacity.
Subject area and Discipline: Youth justice; Discipline of sociology
Funding: Families Commission
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Annabel Taylor; Sue Carswell; Angus Hikairo Macfarlane; Yvonne Crichton-Hill; 'Moana-o-Hinerangi’
Status: 2012 – 2015

Title: Learning journeys from early childhood into schools

Abstract: This project is working with two early childhood services and two schools to investigate ways of enhancing children’s learning journeys from early childhood education into school, and to explore the impact of transition practices over time.  The research is located in two different communities: one where there is an established ECE/ school partnership and one where the relationships will be developed through the project.
Subject area and Discipline: Early childhood; Discipline of education
Funding: TLRI
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Sally Peters and Vanessa Paki of University of Waikato, Keryn Davis of CORE Education, Angus Macfarlane (advisor)
Status: 2011 – 2015

Title: Ethical Internationalism in Higher Education in Times of Crises

Abstract: EIHE is an inter-disciplinary international mixed-methods research project, which has received funding from the Academy of Finland from 2012 to 2015. It examines internationalization processes in higher education and how these processes construct notions of epistemic difference, transnational literacy and global citizenship. Official policies and initiatives, as well as the perceptions of faculty, students, and managers engaged with internationalization processes will be reviewed and compared. The data includes both policy documents and qualitative and quantitative data collected through surveys, interviews and ethnographies in 20 university sites. Research partners in these institutions have agreed to address the same questions using the same methods of data collection to create a common dataset that can be used in comparisons. Shared questions at the heart of the study include: How is the role of the university, faculty and graduates perceived in terms of social accountability ideals? How is epistemic difference perceived in internationalization policies and initiatives at participating universities? What kinds of educational policies and processes have the potential to resist and disrupt dominant patterns of knowledge production that restrict possibilities for ethical relationalities and solidarities in local and global academic spaces?
Subject area and Discipline: Global education; Discipline is interdisciplinary social science
Funding: Academy of Finland, University of Oulu
Māori relevance: Moderate
Personnel: Vanessa Andreotti of University of British Columbia, Angus Macfarlane and wider delegations from 20 countries
Status: 2012 – 2015

Title: Christchurch Health and Development Study - Birth to 35 Years. HRC Ref 11/792.

Abstract: This project is an extension of the longitudinal study under the leadership of the University of Otago, with the cultural dimensions of the study coordinated by the University of Canterbury. (2011-2015). The Christchurch Health and Development Study is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in the Christchurch urban region during mid-1977. The cohort was obtained by contacting the mothers of all live-born children giving birth in all maternity units, both public and private, in the Christchurch urban region during a four-month period and enlisting their participation in the research. Of the 1,310 mothers giving birth at this period, 1,265 (98%) agreed to participate in the research. It is an acclaimed study of international renown.
Subject area and Discipline: Human development; Discipline of psychology
Funding: This research was funded by grants from the Health Research Council of New Zealand, the National Child Health Research Foundation, the Canterbury Medical Research Foundation and the New Zealand Lottery Grants Board.
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: David Fergusson, Angus Macfarlane, Te Maire Tau
Status: 2011 – 2015

Title: Ka Awatea: A tribally-based study of high-achieving Māori students

Abstract: The Ka Awatea research project recognises the altruistic history of Te Arawa educational provision, and acknowledges the foundation that was set down by tribal ancestors for the benefit of those who followed them. The references to the past have great importance to the study. This is made more real by identifying the qualities modelled by former Te Arawa icons which inform the education community today.  Like all tribes in Aotearoa, Te Arawa valued learning, and the desire for educational success in the younger generations was paramount to the growth and development of the land and the people – those of today and those not yet born. Notwithstanding the national statistics there are growing numbers of successful Māori students, and also calls for changes to school environments, communities and curricula that support Māori success and assure its continuance. This study is about making culture count. It draws from the ‘success’ attributes of eight tribal ancestors as the key indicators for determining the domains of success, and the relevance of these attributes in contemporary educational and societal systems.  
Subject area and Discipline: Educational success with associations to the discipline of cultural psychology
Funding: Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane, Hiria McRae (Victoria University), Melinda Webber (Auckland University) and Candy Cookson-Cox (Ahi-kā Rotorua-based consultant) 
Status: Completed 2014

Title: Kia Mau: Young offenders, restorative practices and systemic change

Abstract: Kia Mau is a formative participatory evaluation instrument based on culturally responsive principles designed to support and to enable organisations to assess small-scale restorative justice initiatives through feedback provided by practitioners, young people and their families/ communities. Kia Mau was not designed to assess or evaluate young people and their families, but to offer organisations an opportunity to reflect on the principles and effectiveness of their initiatives with a focus on culturally responsive principles. The conceptual framework of Kia Mau proposes three nested and inter-related approaches to restorative thinking and practice (RTP) organised around eight concepts that are interpreted differently within each approach, namely identity, diligence, relationships, creativity, wellbeing, humility, scholarship, and Māori values.
Subject area and Discipline: Organisation evaluation; Discipline of restorative justice 
Funding: Ministry of Social Development
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Angus Macfarlane, Sonja Macfarlane, Vanessa Andreotti
Status: Completed 2013

Title: Kaupapa Māori Teams in the Ministry of Education

Abstract: The project involved a review of the relevant international and national literature on kaupapa Maori philosophy, focus group interviews, and document analyses. The literature probed information regarding the Treaty of Waitangi and biculturalism, culture and cultural competency, and whanaungatanga/engagement. The literature also provided evidence of the theoretical grounding, credibility and validity of these constructs for the evaluation design and methodology, data analysis, and resulting recommendations for repositioning and strengthening the Kaupapa Māori Teams approach to service delivery in the Ministry of Education. Interviews capturing experiences, insights, and reflections of key persons (managers and team members) responsible for the design, development, and implementation of the four Kaupapa Māori Teams were carried out. Focus group interviews undertaken with the Kaupapa Māori Team Service Managers; the non-Kaupapa Māori Team Service Managers; the kaitakawaenga; Kaupapa Māori Team staff; family / whānau; and Regional and District managers.  Individual interviews undertaken with a school leader; two separate whānau members. Documents cited included Kaupapa Māori Teams Draft Operational Plan (May 2011), Implementation Plan (2010), and Scoping Paper (Feb 2010).
Subject area and Discipline: kaupapa Māori ways of working; Discipline of socio-political theory
Funding: Ministry of Education
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Macfarlane, A., Savage C., Fickel, L., Macfarlane, S. & Tarena, E. 
Status: Completed 2012

Title: Best Evidence Synthesis: Findings for Whānau and Iwi

Abstract: This project draws upon a Maori metaphor to describe the theoretical framework underpinning the methodology and findings of a research project completed by researchers from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010. It explains how and why the project required the research team to synthesise key information from four New Zealand Ministry of Education Best Evidence Synthesis (BES) reports as well as "kaupapa" Maori research associated with the Ministry's "Ka Hikitia" Maori Education Strategy. The key messages outlined in this research were designed by the research team to serve as a new tool to assist whanau (family) and iwi (tribe) to actively engage in the New Zealand schooling system and assert their rights in accordance with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840). Given the large number of Maori children attending Australian schools, the findings of this research may be of interest to Australian educationalists.
Subject area and Discipline: Culturally relevant assessment; discipline of education
Funding: Ministry of Education
Māori relevance: High
Personnel: Macfarlane, A.H., Skerrett, M., Cooper, G., Manning, R.F., Andreotti, V. and Emery, T. 
Status: Completed 2011

For advice

Angus Macfarlane

Professor - Maori Research
Co-Director of the Child Well-being Research Institute
Te Ao Marama 146
Internal Phone: 93833

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